Chapter 6: Lay Governance & Secular Buildings
Nothing is certain in this life, save death & taxes
Benjamin Franklin c. 1800
The Lay Subsidy of 1327
This is the first Governmental record to mention Stambourne since the Magna Carta. It was translated by Dr Jennifer Ward in 1983 as the Essex Historical Document No 1, The Medieval Essex Community, Essex Record Office No 88.
It lists 21 souls who paid the tax in sums ranging from ten shillings & tenpence halfpenny [x s x d ob = 22%] , by Johanna de Grenville, to sixpence [vj d] by Willelmo Serle. She was almost the last owner of the Manor that bears her name but nothing else is known of him. All the taxpayers are listed in the Register of Early Persons in Chapter 3 together with the sums paid. The total Summa collected was xlix s v d qr Two pounds nine shillins and fivepence farthing. Toppesfelde collected Four pounds three shillings showing this same ratio of just less than 2:1 that applies to so many comparisons of the two parishes.
Several of the taxpayers appear in other charters.
Willelmo Baldwin [1/6 ob] is a descendent of Baldwin de Wytstrand who owned the other manor of Moone Hall; it must have been much reduced by 1327.
Matilda Mot [2/2d] will have been the owner of Mot's Farm in the fourth area by Stambourne Green, now erroneously called Moat Farm.
Nicholas de Ryvyle/Ryville [14d] will have owned what is now Revells Farm in the area represented by Domesday Nortuna.
Robert de Burstelere [9/2d = 16.5%] is the most likely candidate for the Stewardship of the Stambourne Manor itself. It was held of the King by Wm Pevers the younger from circa 130030 but I have found no evidence that any of this important family ever came to the village.
Sewalls le Kyng is another possibility but as he only paid sixpence halfpenny it is more likely that, if his name has any significance in this regard, he oversaw some other fragment beholden to King Edward III (132777). As this was the year of the King's accession he probably did have an agent here, perhaps for the purpose of levying the subsidy.
Six of their names still appear in the much later Parish Registers which began in 1559.
The Bacon family continued until 1746. That there were three of them in 1327 , paying between them 4/4d ob suggests that there may once have been a considerable hogbreeding industry.
Brown is a common name
le Hale appears as Halls
Le Kyng appears as King but after an interval
Ryville appears as Ryvet & as Ruell
Serle appears as a bridegroom from Gt Bardfield
None other seems still to have had descendents here by 1551.
Among the Redeswell entries – Summa 43/9d ob appears that of :
Johanne de Stamborne who paid sixpence. This will have been in Ridgewell Norton so three of the landowners there can be identified paying in all 3/10d = 7.75%
Three lady landowners out of 21 the third is Elizabeth de Croxstone paying 2/4d is an unusually high proportion for the early middle ages: together they paid 15/4d, 31 %, also a disproportionate amount.
I do not see any other relevant data in the records of nearby villages; nor do the origins of the surnames or the national biographies cast any further light.
The Hearth Tax & those who paid it
The first annex to this chapter is an SS Tabulation of Hearth Tax records 166466 together with an SS listing of all these records that I have encountered in both the PRO & ERO. There seems to have been a pattern, first of full assessments; these are followed by updating in alternate years. Paupers were exempted in some years but Ministers of Religion never were.
There is no direct relationship of the number of hearths to population density but a calculation has been made that the best estimate is to multiply that number by 4.04. This gives the number of souls in Stambourne as 315 372 in 166270
The tax was levied from 19 May 1662 until 1689 & was collected in two instalments:
@ Michaelmas [S Michael & all Angels; 29 September]
& Lady Day [Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary; 25 March]
(Lady day was the first, not the last, day of the Gregorian year)
It follows therefore that :
there may well be two records for any one year
& the first payment was due only one month from the Bartholomew Act of 23 August 1662.
& a payment dated Lady Day 1666 relates to an assessment in 1665 o.s.
Records were variously kept centrally & by local people. Those with accompts that I have seen relate to onpayments by collectors when the houseowners had to pay up is not clear. A substantial number of records still exist. Effectively none is clearly dated and their origins have been derived by JBE from internal evidence.
There are extremely few abbreviations: Willm does appear but not Jno or Thos or Wm which JBE has used extensively in his attempts at unravelling these difficult documents..
1662 Q/RTh1 is a card index in the ERO. It is derived from a document described as :
Assessment (Hearth Tax) Imperfect Names 72 ms.
It contains a dozen persons named Havers in Essex: their parishes are identified by arabic numerals:
Henry & Joseph in Colchester St Peter [the parish code is 271]
Philip & William in All Saints 
Richard in Bishops Wood 
Edward in Harlow 
Richard in Great Waltham 
William in Havering 
William in Margaretting 
C (t.c.) in Saffron Walden
William in St Runwald 
In parish # 97 & in Stambourne , the occupant is not even given an initial.
The man in Stambourne is clearly our HHI; he is recorded simply as:
(space) Havers Gent.
[In three of the records of 16626 that I have seen he is referred to thus: in the other he is]
This appears to have been a deliberate Cavalier slight to a Puritan cleric, for when the next Rector appears he is dignified as:
Robert Cock cl'icus [= clericus]
Since the entries are made at Michaelmas it is quite probable that the ejection of HHI had not had time to become effective in the few days elapsing since 23d August.
It records 92 hearths in 31 messuages in Stambourne [There are 169 in 57 in Toppesfield]
In the P R O all the records are grouped under the prefix E 179.
1662 246/8 is a single sheet It is described as : Assessment (Hearth Tax) Imperfect Names 72 ms
1663 Q/RTh2 is a revision in the ERO. I still have not seen it but it is said to be the same.
1664 E179 246/26 seen in the PRO. There is no date on it . It is indexed as
Chas II Mich 1664 Return (Hearth Tax) Names 32 ms (it is actually 33pp)
I agree it is of 1664. The cover says it is a Lay Subsidy. I made a copy in pencil & have transferred my notes with errors, omissions & illegibilities to column 1 of the large table in the Annex 1.
The largely illegible contemporary paragraph @ its head, which does not help to date it, may be:
........ b____ not
in his geh ________writt att
bottome of the brief in the
By analogy with other entries this is probably a note by the tax collector recording handing the money over to the agents Car II on Lady Day but the year is not given.
112/687 has the list of names and a column of numbers of this year but, importantly, two columns of alterations which I deduce to be 1666; it is described in the paragraph on that year, below.
1665 246/20 seen & copied in PRO: it is the nicest of the records there. It covers Hinckford & 7 other areas. It is entitled:
Returns (Hearth Tax) Names 104ms
It is of parchment 40 x 10 cms bound with leather thongs but without a hard cover. It is a new assessment with some alterations in a separate RH column, apparently all done at the same time
It is endorsed at the beginning by a Mr Horsmell [was this really the tax collectors name ?] with an accompt date of Lady Day 1666 for
one half of duty sent by him due to his M..illegible..;
as this is the first day of the new o.s. year the record must be of data collected in Michaelmas 1665.
At the end it has another payment note:
I figud that slow hath bin pd by this
Accomptant into the late ffarmo
Treasy, upon accompt this hab
yr duty the somme of four [in so far as JBE can read it]
Ex squiggle Witt Webb 1671
Aug 11 1671
It presumably describes late payment of the Michaelmas 1666 dues for 1665 assessment.]
I have typed from my pencil copy on to column 2 of the large table.
1666 112/687 seen & copied in PRO and referred to under 1664, above. Again there is no sure date. It has been indexed : Hinckford Assessment (Subsidies) Names 28fs
It is a heavy paper folio stitched with a later vellum cover which was marked Michaelmas 1664 in pencil sometime in this century. The Title says
CAR I (sic) Essex Hundred de Hinckford Subs Firehearths
on the outer cover with a steel pen. From internal evidence I deduce it must contain some records from dates later than 246/20. It has a column of names between two columns of figures and a complex one of comments on the RHS.
I now think that the names are a copy of 246/26 of 1664; they are in the same order save that John ffrench & Jas Smith are missing from the former. We have no record of the demise of ffrench in the Anglican Registers but Smith was buried in 1668. The numbers of hearths in the main column (in good dark ink, as are the names) are identical save that Thos ffitch has ii, not i & Daniel Smith has iii, not iv. It is recorded that D.S. demolished one in 1665: there would be no call for a note saying that J.S. had built another provided he paid up.
I conclude that these figures in original dark ink are a scribes copy of 1664 data
In a faded ink to the LHS of the names is a list of hearths in which six residents claim a smaller number than in 1664. In a column containing a dozen comments in very pale ink placed to the extreme right of the dark figures Wm Deekes admits pulling one down & Daniel Smith had
' one stopped up by his sonne'
Five of the comments record changes of ownership; all of them imply the last column is the latest of these records.
I hypothesise that this complex & untidy record represents reuse of a spare copy of the 1664 data (or one made for the purpose) in Michaelmas 1666 to levy the tax then due.
There is an untidy note at the bottom of the page which may refer to Widow Deek and may have some figures in it I think I can see a cipher representing one half suggesting it too may refer to a payment as on the previous record.
The appearance & disappearances of eight persons, three of them widows, in the three columns of names, are consistent with these hypotheses: the ten relevant entries in the Parish registers are also consistent.
112/705 is a single imperfect ms in the PRO indexed as 18 Chas = 1666 Hinckford Duplicate assessment (Poll Tax). It does not help but does support the suggestion of copies being made of these lists.
The importance of establishing this sequence lies in the top line which in all of them credits
..... ...Havers gent or Mr Havors
with vii hearths. At the very end of this top line is added
now Robert Cock Clicus.
If my deductions are correct this implies he did not enter into his rightful place in the Rectory House until after Michaelmas 1665 or even 1666.
Against this interpretation is a record of a Primo Visitatio Generalis Humfredo Henchman to Hedingham Decanat on 6 September 1664. Robert Cook (sic) attended and the document appears to bear his own signature. Did he stay elsewhere in Stambourne for a year or so ? Alternatively was he, Cocke, a local man who & retained his domicile in another nearby village to avoid conflict ? The name does appear both in Sturmer & Steeple Bumpstead. This may even explain why we have no burial record for him.
The 1665 record also records a dozen alterations in a separate column. The top two lines recording Mr Havors & Thos Pannell are bracketed together as:
Taken together these alterations do suggest that they were made later, perhaps as late as 1667. They do however recall that though Grace Cock was buried in 1668 there is no record of Robert's burial though he was certainly dead by 1667. I wonder if he were already dead, perhaps from the plague and there was no other literate person in the village able to record his burial.
1668 Q/RTh3 in ERO is on vellum (or more likely porcum) with the Stambourne entries written on a very rough piece [perhaps in an armpit] and almost illegible.
It records in Latin [in which language focus,i is a fireplace, hearth, house or family]:
Jethro Green junr iii
ditto Choat iii
Thomas Barnard i
Daniel Smith i
Ricd Marriott coffii??
John E......themplate?? [possibly Edwards or Elliston ; it looks like Etronil]
This must be a revision; none of our Rectors is mentioned in it. No addresses are given.
1669 QR/Th4 in the ERO is indeed said to be a revision
1671 QR/Th5 is in the ERO. It gives 86 hearths in 30 messuages (Toppesfield has 203 in 63)
1672 I deduce 246/12 in the PRO to be of this year. It is labelled 25 Ch II which has been corrected from 15 Ch II. It is of 35 ms entitled: Assessment (Hearth Tax)
246/29 is indexed as Chas II with no other date; it is of 4 ms of 'County Fragments' perhaps c. 1670
Annex 1: Hearth Tax Record List
A Listing of all the documents of Hearth Tax or Lay subsidy that I found
The thirteenth regnal year of Charles II is reckoned from 30 Jan 1661 to 29 Jan 1662, as his reign is dated from the moment of his father’s execution.
Date Regnal year PRO ERO Documents Posn in chart
1662 14 Chas II 3 3/40 Q/RTh1 cards in drawer
1663 Q/RTh2 Alterations only; not seen I think
1664 16 Chas II 1 43/69 Michaelmas in pencil Main col of 3
Alterations of 1666 v.i. LH & RH cols
Chas II 9 6/13 Mich. Only col of 1
1665 12 3/10 Accompt Lady Day 1666 Main col of 2
1666 18 Chas II 1 41/71 Duplicate single ms
18 Car II 1 43/69 Complex; 3 cols LH & RH of 3
1667 none found
1670 none found
1672 25 Ch II 20 1/2 corrected from 15 C II
GOK Chas II 8 14/29 County fragments.4 ms
Mainly from notes made in the PRO in Chancery Lane on 2 Nov 1988. Their index is in a white foolscap book No 60 on the LHS near desk in the Round Room. Essex is near the back of the book. These numbers actually have a solidus, not a point but the FW SS will not print this format.
All entries are prefixed E179. It is quite probable that all are now @ Kew.
The documents in the ERO are much less extensive.
Annex 2: Hearth Tax Listing 1664-67
1664 246.26 1665 ? 1667:246.20 ?1666 ? text of 1664 1666 [notes from register]
Alterations Pale Black changes in very pale ink
Havers Gent vii Mr Havors vii empty vii Havers gent____ vii now Robert Cock clicus
Thos Pannell vi Thos Pannell 0 vi empty vi Thomas Pannell vi now Mrs Deek[alive 1666
Wm Deekes iii Willim Deekes ii & i fallen down ii William Deekes iii one demolished by
John Choate viii & ii falln down pulling down
Jno Mifsing iii John Missing iii iii John Missing iii ISQ now demolished by
Jno Choate 10 [v.s. box 6] vi John Choate viii [JM bd 1667]
Jno Levitt ii John Levitt Senr ii ii John Levitt iii ISQ
Daniel Poulton iv Daniel Poulton iv iv Daniel Poulton iv ISQ
Robert Phillips i [no Robt Phillips] i Robert Phillips i ISQ
Widdî Smith i
Thos Playle ii Thos Playle ii i Thos Plaile ii ISQ [alive 1665]
Thos Bunting i Thos Bunting i ii Thomas Bunting i ISQ
Wm Stafforde i Willm Bryant i i William Stafford i now William Bryant
Jno Walkington 5 John Walkinson v v John Walkinson v ISQ [bd 1667]
Roger Roberts 5 Roger Roberts v v Roger Roberts v ISQ [bd 1668]
Jno Cragg ii John Cragg ii ii John Cragg ii ISQ [alive 1664]
Widow Davy i Widdi Davy o i i Davy Vict i Now John Davis?
Thos Barnard iii Thos Bownard ii ii Thomas Barnard iii puld downº
Matt Butcher iii Math Butcher iii iii Matthew Butcher iii ISQ
End of page
John Horwood ii John Harwood ii ii John Horwoods ii ISQ
Thos ffitch i Thos ffitch i ii Thomas ffitch ii ISQ [alive 1662]
Thos Wyborow iii Thos Wibrow iii ii Thomas Wiborrow iii ISQ [alive 1665]
Hy Brett iii [v.i. end-1] iii Henry Brett iii now ye Widd ffrench
[no ffrench] John ffrench i i John ffrench i ISQ
Smyth wid iii Widdi Smith iii iii Smith vict iii ISQ
Thos Baron ii
Baron vict iv Widdi Baron iv Empty iv Baron vict iv ISQ
Blewitt i Widdi Blewitt i i Blewitt vict i ISQ
Thos Baron ii [v.s box 30] ii Thomas Baron ii ISQ
Willm Stafford o ii
End of Page
John ffarbrowe ii ['v.i.end] ii John ffalconer ii now John Levitt ? jnr
Daniel Smyth iv Daniel Smith ii & i demolished iii Daniel Smith iii one stopped up by his
[no Jas Smith] James Smith iv iv James Smith iv ISQ ['bd 1668] sonne
Wm Robertson ii Willm Robinson i ii William Robertson ii ISQ?
John Brown ii [no John Brown] ii John Browne ii one dem ol al by Prescn
Henry Brett o iii ISQ? JB alive 1666
John Falconer o ii ISQ?
Totals 88 78 87
Analysis of the appearance of those names that were recorded though not in all 3 of these years
Robt Phillips yes no yes
Widdi Smith 1 yes no yes
John ffrench No yes no v.s.Brett
Widdi Smith 2 No yes yes
Daniel Smith yes yes yes
Jas Smith yes yes yes
Widdi Baron no yes yes
Thos Baron yes yes yes
no yes no
Annex 3: Notes on the Hearth Tax Records
Records in the Anglican Registers
Ten of the taxpayers appear: this is a list of the last mention of them.
Mrs Deek was alive in 1666
John Missing was buried in 1667
Thos Plaile was alive in 1665
John Walkinson was buried in 1667
Roger Roberts was buried in 1668
John Cragg was alive in 1664
Thos ffitch was alive in 1662
Thos Wiborow was alive in 1665
Jas Smith was buried in 1668
John Brown was alive in 1666
These data are consistent with my interpretation of the dating of the taxation records.
Some notes on nearby villages
Timothy Cock ii Could Robert Cock clicus having been living with a relative ?
Bumsted ad Turrum
John Cooke Did we have Cooke or Cock ?
Ridgewell 39/91 I guess I mean 39 Hearths in 91 messuages
Wm Peacock vi Then 0 between lines, then vi, then emy (presumably = empty)
This is just like the Stambourne entry for Pannell
Ed Copsey ii(1662)
____ Presumably none of our important names here
The largely illegible contemporary opening paragraph is now in the text.
Uttlesford Hundred & so on
Toppesfield 67/124 + 41 empty & 1 burnt down
1664 & 1666 112/687 Subs (Freehearths)
There are some very odd notes at the end of this record: a largely undecipherable blotty cipher reads:
ii John ffalconer ii now john Levitt
iii Daniel Smith iii one stopped up by his sonne
iv James Smith iv a squiggle that may be ISQ
Den fisson but Look Vlyd [these 2 words may be Deek widow]
Doseds Ay nii Js [is this some figure + a half ?]
hiw offin squiggle
ii William Robertson ii another squiggle that may be ISQ or the word one
ii John Browne ii demi ol al bt Prersen; this line may be joined to the 'one' above
Apart from possibly referring to Mrs Deek taking over from Thos Pannell in line 3 and the similarity to the other irregular 'accompts' I don’t see that these help.
The best copies are my original pencil sketches in the Hearth Tax file in the Havers volume.
The Essex Freeholders of 1734
The earliest Essex Freeholders book of 1734 was reprinted in 1982 by The Friends of Historic Essex: it is E.R.O., Q/RJ 1/1. It was published under and Act of 7 & 8 Wm III, c.32 (1696).
It lists men between 21 & 70, quoting what they said their ages were, who owned freehold property worth more than ten pounds per annum. 3 Geo II (1730) extended the liability to jury service to longterm leaseholders of twenty or more pounds
Some jurisdictions, including Colchester, Harwich, Maldon & Saffron Walden were exempt & are not included. About threefourths of the entries give occupation and rank.
Stambourne has two entries under Hinckford Hundred.
The first is the word "none" printed against the village name, improbable as this may seem. In fact there are 26 Ecclesiastical parishes so designated out of the total listed of some 500, a proportion of about one in twenty. As we have always been one of the smallest villages, have never had a very large house and ordained ministers will then, as now, have been exempt, it is conceivable that noone living here did qualify. Moone Hall & Grenvilles were by now much reduced & the Hall may well have been empty or let. The last clearly recorded owner, Shelley Wankford, died in 1731. The succession is described by Morant as going to Luke Jackson, who predeceased him in 1721, " or to Mr Gosling " of whom nothing else is known; he was perhaps a tenant or agent.
The second entry is under Sturmere (sic) and is that Thomas Crisp, aet 51, had an estate of £12 in our village. Thomas Todd, Lord of the Manor of Sturmer, bz 8 Dec 1669, had married Dorcas, the (probably elder) sister of Shelley Wankford. This marriage, of about 1700, is not recorded in our register. Robert, Shelley's father, lived in Berwick Hall for some time so it is probably in the Toppesfield records. It is quite probable that a daughter of the Todds had married Thomas Crisp and that this £12 estate was our Hall. The shadowy Mr Gosling could well have been maintaining the Hall for them.
The 26 parishes said to have noone holding an estate of more than £ 10 p.a. are :
BARSTABLE HUNDRED BECONTREE; nil
Bowers Gifford CHAFFORD
Horndon West Stifford
Hanningfield S CLAVERING; nil
Wayland Little Dunmow
Middlemead Hamlet FRESHWELL; nil
Steeple HARLOW; nil
HINCKFORD LEXDEN; nil
Forearck(sic) ONGAR; nil
Stambourne [but Thos Crisp of Sturmer had a £12 estate here]
Little Yeldham [curious: Peter Muilman Senr bought the manor in 1749 but I dont know who lived here in 1734]
THURSTABLE; n1pil Gt Stambridge
WALTHAM; nil UTTLESFORD
WINSTREE Little Chishall [Chrishall]
Mersea East Wendens Lofts
It is noteworthy how similar many of these villages are in size & character to Stambourne
Land Use in 1810 to 1837
These years have the most informative records of who farmed in the village. Jas Hopkins was appointed Rector in 1809 and promptly produced a manuscript list of what he found. This bears some notes on property values & successions and was added to several times, notably 1813 & 1815. I have transcribed his notes but not his lists of which in 1988 NJE made this summary:
The 15 farmers named are, in order of the size of their holdings:
Name Acres Roods
Mr Edward Jarvis of Church Farm 219
Mr [Wm] King of Tagley 216 2
Mr Barker Myall of Robin Hood End & Stambourne Green 212 2
Mr [A] Myall[s] of Stambourne Hall 193
Mr Hill [John Hills perhaps] 144 1
Mr [Isaac] Piper of Harriss Farm 107
Mr Richd Chaplin of Three Chimnies 75 2
Mr Unwin of Hill Farm & Schoolhouse Farm 70
Mr John Ralling of Messings Farm 35
James Clark of the Slough 32
Mr Jos Jarvis of Botsford 31 1
Mr Wm Brown of Elms 30
Mr Beddoe of the Meeting Farm [Little Collins] 26
Mr Piggott of Ridgewell Norton 20
Joseph Choat 1 1
The total recorded by the Rector is 1413 1
Mr Hopkins of course owned the Rectory lands but they do not appear here or in the 1837 listing. Noticeably the Congregational Pastor's lands do.
Thus there are 3 with over 200 acres
3 with 100 200
2 50 100
4 30 40
2 20 30
I have calculated in Chapter 2 that the total present size is some 2000 modern acres. The 1837 tithe map calculators listed some 1815 acres. These figures are in good agreement.
Under the Tithe Commutation Act of 1836 Tithes could be commuted to a Rent charge. The Commissioners caused a most detailed survey of Stambourne to be made and recorded on a fine map of some 6 " to the mile. On it all the fields were numbered and lists were produced; they shewed the names of the fields according to their numbers and arranged by farms; they also listed those who worked or owned them. The copies we have of microfilm records are somewhat indistinct but mostly we have been able to decipher the details and name nearly all the fields on the map. These are the annexes 5 & 6 which I propose to recast on a spreadsheet.
Annex 4: Land use in 1810
This is a transcript by JBE of notes to an 8 pp listing of fields & their owners by JH
[pp 1 6 bear no headings so I cannot be certain that this is the beginning of the listing;
this page does start with the Stambourn Hall entry]
The farm of Stambourn Hall was bought by
Mr A Myall for his brother Barker Myall in the
year] a space is left here and in several other places none of which seem to have been filled] for the sum of 4000 or 4500 of Burnas in Co Suffolk blot (May 1813)* Harris's farm a desirable piece of land that from it s vicinity ought to be part of Stambourn Hall
estate might have been purchased by Mr
for the sum of but he
declined becoming the purchaser as having
paid too much already for the Hall _ it was
then purchased by Mr Brock whose son the
Revd Mr Brock near Dunmow XX now XXX (Feb
1814) leases it to Mr Isaac Piper. It had
several tenants upon it , a dwelling house
(I believe) which was burned down & other
buildings from Mr A Myall Feb. 1814
page 2, top
The entire of the farm of Robin
Hoods end was sold in the year 1811
By Mr Barker Myall to Mr Wm.
Seymour of C.Hedingham for £ 6000
of whome Mr Myall bought again
Pond Wood (18 acres) & Mr Wm. King
of Tagley bought Bryants & 7 Acre
field these two latter purchases were
made the year after (1812)
I am informed that this farm of Rob.H.End
was bought in the year by Mr Barker
Myall uncle to the present occupier of the
Hall of a man named Fickley* _ _ for
the sum of 2800£. Davey the then ten.t had
refused it for 2700£. on [l.c.sic] the death of Mr B Myall
it came to his brother Mr A Myall who sold it to
his son as above. Shiply Wood tho lying in
the midst of R.H.End land is part of the
farm of Stambourne Green to which there is
a communic.n by a lane or chase another
lane or chase which is at an angle with this
runs as a bound.y of separation between Shiply
wood & Pond wood.
Stambourn Green Farm was bought by Mr.
A Myall for his brother in the year [blank]
of Mr for the sum of 1000 9.s [JE ?]the timber
or wood felled in Shipley wood felled soon after bought
in £50 £[crossed out]['e' in the 3d Shipley only]
*Fickley or Finckley married a daughter
of Sr. John Fairwell whose body is
deposited in this chancel & who lived at Robin
Hoods end from a situation of affluence
he was reduced to one of indigence by
reason of extravagance & misconduct.
This is the only mention of his body being the interred in chancel rather than the sanctuary where his fine stone now is.
In 1871 Master wrote
The floor within the communion rails was all taken up and tiles put down. The flat tomb stones which were there before were placed at equal distance from each other and from the side walls
This entry implies that JH is in error in using the word chancel
The tiling seems to have been done in at least two stages judging from the irregularities around the MH stoneand some slightly different textures in the surface. There is indeed a note writtten in about 1920 of relaying some uneveness in the floor.
Mr Unwin has two farms Hill
Farm and School House Farm which
were purchased about 7 years ago
by his brother Mr Joseph Unwin
of Mr Morley of Halstead
for the sum of £ 3000 J Unwin was
the tenant of Mr Morley and some years
of the lease were still unexpired
there are about 200 acres in the 2
farms there were other buildings
on school house or at least more
of the house than what is at
present standing leased all this
from Ja.s Barn.d Bricklayer 6th May 1815
The last 10 words seem to be a later addition made in 1815 and the whole entry is rather careless and ill punctuated
Opposite Mr John Ralling occupies of
Stambourn Meadow _________ 5 This is claimed by Revd H Steuart
as belonging to Bumpstead
Page 7 is headed:
Return of the Land in the [deleted] parifh of Stambourn
beginning of the year 1810
Page 8 continues:
as given to me by the different holders in the [edge of page]
previous to the new composition for the tythes made in March 1810
Annex 5: Table of Field Ownership &Use 1837
This is an amended version of 23/10/03 which attempts to include most of your annotations from 1999.
I can ‘improve’ it further by a) removing duplicate owners in Landowner column b) Making capitalisation and abbreviation consistent in Field Name column c) removing blue and green entries d) adding a footnote to this effect ‘any discrepancies between the totals shown (shewn?) and the sum of the field sizes is probably due to either i) original scribal error or ii) the poor quality of the photocopies from which this table is derived’.
I haven’t yet re-checked the calculations (or used Bill Gates to do so) but will do if it is desirable.
I’ve left in a couple of red totals because they are contained in your pencilled 1999 notes. I can easily ‘lose’ these.
Tithes Commutation List 1837
This complex table is an approximate reproduction of the Tithe Commutation list of 1837. The original is very difficult to read but has been accepted as nearly as possible. Some small patches of land and most homesteads have been omitted but the totals of acres and valuation have been accepted.
La ndowner Occupier Location Field Name Field No Ac Rd Po £ s d
Widow HARRIS cottage 134 0 0 12 0 0 0
Abraham ARGENT cottage 208 0 1 35 0 0 0
ARNOLD Alexander Himself cottage 209 0 0 38 0 0 0
BROWN John Himself cottage 84 0 1 22 0 0 0
BROWN Wm Himself Elms Farm Pt Barn Field 87 4 35
Pt Franks 88 8 3 0
Pt Long pasture 89 3 0 17
Mill field 90 8 3 13
Pt Wood field 93 2 0 20
Pt Hans. field 94 2 1 23
Elms Wood 3 3 26
33 1 14 9 0 4
BURLEIGH Gabriel Joseph WIX cottage 242 0 0 21
BEDDELL John Himself Leveritts Farm (sic) Lodge Field 217 3 2 2
The Pasture 218 1 2 25
Stevens ley 221 10 0 35
Slipe Field 222 2 3 30
Long field 318 11 2 28
Rowley 319 9 2 8
Home Pasture 320 3 0 30
Homestead 321 0 0 32
Old ley 324 9 0 32
Rowley Grove 335 4 2 3
Maryland 337 6 0 5
Pt of pick field 338 1 0 30
Unoccupied Cottage 219 0 0 35
66 1 20 17 18 3
CHOAT John Himself Cottage & garden 105 2 37 3 6
CHOAT Henry Himself Cottage & garden 100 0 3 0 4 0
CHAPLIN late John's Trustees Themselves Strawberry field 50 2 0 0 12 3
Joshua FITCH & Samuel BRIDGE Mary BOWYER cottage 290 0 2 4
Joshua FITCH & Samuel BRIDGE Samuel FITCH cottage 253 0 0 9
Joshua FITCH & Samuel BRIDGE Abraham MARTIN cottage 250 0 1 18
Joshua FITCH & Samuel BRIDGE Robert PLAYLE cottage 252 0 0 26
CROFT? John Esquire Edward JARVIS Newhouse Farm Kitchen fd 172 2 1 32
Homestead 173 3 29
Plantation 174 0 0 12
Lane 175 1 3 0
Little fd 179 2 0 35
Seven (!) acres 205 9 1 32
Bryants fd 206 11 2 19
Stack ley 229 10 1 15
Hopground 230 8 0 0
Hopground pasture 231 1 1 35
House pasture 231 2 0 0
New fd 232 3 1 35
Home fd 234 4 0 14
Barn pasture 235 1 1 5
Home psre 236 1 2 0
Shoemakers ptre 237 2 0 6
New ley 238 1 0 37
69 0 16 19 4 0
CROFT? John Esquire Wm ASHFORD cottage 209 0 0 12
Charity Land Trustees of R Stambourne, R Birdbrook, V St Bumpstead, V Finchingfield Henry UNWIN Missents Farm Cheer field 334 10 2 9
pt Stambourne pr 355 3 2 0
pt longland fd 356 7 1 26
Leydens 357 8 0 26
Slade fd 358 4 0 20
Further fd 359 8 0 25
41 3 26 11 5 6
ELY John Parmenter BRAMSTON Parmenters Mead 112 1 1 37
1 3 2 9 1
ELY John Daniel BRAZIER cottage 185 0 1 8
ELY John John HARVEY cottage 254
ELY Susan Barker MYALL Old House Farm Pt pen Field 159 9 3 0
Middle fd 160 6 1 20
Home pen fd 161 7 0 13
Little Home fd 162 1 0 26
Pasture 162a 1 0 16
Homestead 163 1 0 12
Crooks fd 249 5 3 13
Pen fd 257 5 2 13
37 3 33 12 4 6
EDEN Revd Robert Geo GOODCHILD Part further Dock Fld 362 4 3 0
Part further Dock Fld 363 6 1 24
Part Weybridge Meadow 364 1 2 13
Part Weybridge Meadow 366 3 30
13 2 27 3 11 9
FLACK Ann Herself cottage 248 0 0 16
FITCH Richard Chas MARTIN cottage 243 0 0 10
FITCH Richard Geo RAWLINSON cottage 244 0 0 11
GIBBENS Wm Himself Hill Farm Pt peg fd 59 5 3 0
Lower pigs(?) 60 5 3 27
Hop ground fd 61 6 0 24
pt High fd 62 4 1 38
pt Newlands 63 4 1 26
Five acres 64 5 2 28
Pauls pasture 65 2 2 10
The Pasture 129 3 2 25
School field 130 9 3 23
School garden 131 0 3 2
Town fd 132 10 0 25
Upper Park fd 136 7 3 5
little ditto 137 7 3 14
pt Mill fd 138 6 2 17
Pt Garden 140 0 1 2
Orchard 141 0 1 20
pt Dovehouse? Fd 142 0 3 26
pt Long ptre 143 1 3 7
Lower park 145 11 0 16
94 0 9 29 11 9
GIBBENS Wm Thos BUNTON cottage 66 0 0 27
GIBBENS Wm Thos YIEU? cottage 135 0 0 35
GIBBENS Wm Charlotte PARMENTER cottage 139 0 1 4
GIBLIN? John Thos GIBLIN Part fern? Field 361 11 3 23 3 1 8
GENT Geo Wm John THOROGOOD Slough Farm Pasture 280 4 3 25
Garden 281 10
Home Hall 293 1 1 21
Garden fd 294 2 3 17
Little ley 295 1 3 6
Pool fd 296 6 1 4
Six acres 297 6 2 13
Three acres 298 3 0 12
Great ley 299 4 0 4
Cart Lodge fd 300 5 0 34
38 1 26 ??
36 0 26 9 7 9
GENT Geo Wm John YELDHAM Percivale ley 343 6 2 31
6 2 31 1 19 0
HOPKINS Revd Jas Himself Turners Farm Upper field 96 5 2 24
Lower do 97 1 3 36
Homestead 99 0 2 0
8 3 20
8 0 25 2 9 2
HOPKINS Revd James (Glebe) Himself Glebe Second lower field 120 4 0 29
First ditto 121 3 0 10
Pightle 122 1 0 27
House 123 2 0 3
Lower pasture 127 1 3 2
Four & half acre field 176 4 3 30
Second upper field 177 5 0 2
Little upper field 178 1 3 27
26 0 15 3 0 0
HOPKINS Revd James (Glebe) Himself Churchyard 76 1 0 3
HOPKINS Revd Jas John Pask cottage 98 0 1 18
HOPKINS Revd Jas Wm KEYS garden 45 0 0 3
HOPKINS Revd Jas Edwd STOCK cottage 114 0 0 10
HOPKINS Revd Jas Wm WESLEY cottage 42 0 0 13
HANNIBAL Chas Himself cottage 46 0 1 12
HILLS Mary Wm DREW cottage 352 0 1 22
HILLS Mary Chas MARTIN cottage 0 0 17
HILLS Mary Robt HARVEY New Enclosure 337 0 1 12
JARVIS Richard hself ctge 247
JARVIS Henry John RICHARDSON ctge 104 0 0 6
Wm KEYS hself ctge 43 0 0 19
MYALL Barker Himself Stambourne Hall Great Shepherds land 7 14 0 0
ditto 8 10 0 21
Essex ley 9 10 0 18
New Barn pasture 10 1 0 26
Little Shepherds lands 11 7 3 20
pt Home ptre 12 2 1 34
Trustee? Long mead 13 12 3 0
Ash ground 14 0 3 21
Munnil? field 36 29 0 28
First Long Mead 37 7 3 36
Home fd 38 11 1 11
Calves gate? 39 19 3 15
Hall fd 40 18 1 11
Ash Ground piece? 72 2 3 5
The Moor? 73 8 2 1
Great Park 74 23 2 21
Plantation 75 2 0 16
House Orchard Garden 77 2 0 2
Homestead 78 1 1 4
The Moor 79 3 3 7
Round House park 80 3 3 8
Plantation 81 1 1 10
Digbye? Mead 82 7 1 5
Parmenter fd 101 8 1 15
210 3 15
210 1 29 61 6 0
MYALL Barker Himself Stambourne Green Shipley Wood 226 13 2 29
pt Isaacs fd 258 5 2 20
pt Upper Shot? 264 2 1 0
Upper Shotfield? 265 7 2 4
Cowls Bottom & 275 277 2 4 47
Ash Ground piece? 284 0 1 34
Homestead 291 0 1 34
Pinefield? 292 2 2 9
38 3 17
33 3 27 8 7 1
MYALL Barker Himself Pond Wood 311 19 0 20 1 13 4
MYALL Barker Frederick SPANNER The Lion Public House 1 2 8 0 6 0
MYALL Barker Geo BOWYER Garden 286 0 0 25
MYALL Barker Jas KEMP garden 0 3 19 5 9
MYALL Barker Chas MARTIN cottage 41 0 0 34
MYALL Barker John PARMENTER gdn 102 0 0 35
MYALL Barker John LEWSEY ctge 103 0 1 0
MYALL Barker John WHIFFEN ctge 83 0 1 4
MARSH Thos MARSH Wm Upper Graze 203 3 0 20
3 0 29 1 5 0
NOTTIDGE Geo Wm KEYS gdn 44 0 0 20
NOTTIDGE Geo Geo HILLS Essex Farm Pt Pettyfield Wood 1 12 1 13
Further Pettyfield 5 13 3 11
First do: 6 16 3 0
Short Croft 47 3 2 12
Rusts? Wood fd 48 5 2 8
Pine croft 49 11 3 10
Rusts wood 0 3 23
Great Dung field 67 8 3 23
Hither Meadow 68 7 0 0
Harris fd 69 12 2 16
Further meadow 70 5 1 27
Gravel pit field 71 6 2 0
102 0 32 28 13 0
PARMENTER Edwd Geo FITCH ctge 164 0 0 16
QUEENS College Cambridge the Masters and fellows of late John CHAPLIN Executer Three Chimneys Pt 3 Chimneys Wood 51 7 3 11
Pt Woodfield 52 7 3 16
Wood ptre 53 5 0 21
Moat Field 55 3 1 4
Pt Bookmans fd 56 1 0 1
Old Ley 57 7 3 28
Slade? ptre 58 3 0 5
Pt Further ptre 144 1 1 18
Further fd 148 1 1 30
Crooks wood 149 6 0 10
40 0 11 8 10 6
QUEENS College Cambridge the Masters and fellows of late John CHAPLIN Executer Stambourne Green Taylors fd 241 8 0 14
Argieib 251 2 2 11
Valey (sic) 262 3 2 17
Tufts meadow 269 12 1 14
Tufts fd 270 4 1 0
Trustees farm fd 271 5 1 0
Farm wood 272 10 0 15
Second Farmfield 273 7 2 16
First ditto 274 5 1 5
Rushey ley 275 3 3 32
Home meadow 289 3 3 0
Regis Pasture 302 5 3 4
The Common 310 1 0 20
78 2 26 17 9 6
QUY Mary Herself fields 2 2 7 16 6
RANDALL Richd Thos SHELLY Stambourne Green Bray? Meadow 279 0 3 29
Butchers Arms 256 0 0 28
1 0 17 5 0
RUFFLE Wm Revd Jas HOPKINS The Avenue 1 3 0
RUFFLE Wm Robert PESTIN?/JOSTIN? Stambourne Green Town meadow field 167 4 3 23
Town meadow bottom 168 2 2 28
Shipley fd 227 18 5 15
The Grove? 228 0 3 36
Thistley Broads 240 8 2 22
Isaacs meadow 259 0 2 2
Twelve acre ley 260 14 3 23
Eight acre 261 12 2 25
Seven acre 263 7 2 3
Shipley Fm 1 1 18
Gun? Slough 266 9 1 2
The Croft 267 0 3 12
The Chase 268 0 1 0
Harts? close 301 2 3 20
Revels fd 303 8 0 24
Home meadow 303 3 0 0
Home fd 306 16 2 27
Purkis fd 307 9 0 22
Little Common 308 4 2 26
The Common 309 10 0 17
Upper meadow 349 16 3 10
Lower do. 350 7 2 14
Pigs meadow 353 4 3 25
168 2 19 48 6 5
RUFFLE Wm Himself Church Farm Home Elsiton 107 11 1 3
The Croft 110 0 3 17
Further Elsdon 111 11 1 76
Calves pastre 119 4 0 16
Hay Croft 124 11 3 10
Great Sandals? 125 18 1 20
Little do. 126 8 2 0
The pasture 128 2 3 0
Pens fd 166 9 1 13
Pens pasture 167 3 0 23
Shoemakers fold 170 6 1 6
Little long leay? 180.1 6 2 11
Great do. 181 13 2 12
Twist 239 7 3 20
128 2 0 38 2 0
RUFFLE Wm John RUGGLES ctge 163 0 0 8
RUFFLE Wm Henry WIFFIN ctge 171 0 1 10
RUFFLE Wm Edwd RHODES ctge 241 0 0 12
Stambourne Independent Chapel the trustees of Revd James SPURGEON Little Collins Further field 146 6 1 33
Coal Hearth Field 147 3 2 22
Wood field 150 6 1 30
Six acre 151 6 1 30
Garden field 152 2 14
The Chapel & Gard 153 0 0 21
Homestead 154-6 2 18
The Meadow 157 1 1 27
31 2 24 9 3 0
SEYMOUR William Esqre Wm RUFFLE Greenfields Weybridge Mead 15 3 0 24
Twelve acres 16 12 1 18
Pear Tree field 17 9 0 31
Thistley field 18 9 0 25
Gate field 19 4 3 32
Hollow piece 20 5 2 20
Oxleys? Pasture 21 2 0 4
Stump croft 22 6 0 21
Prince field 23 3 0 2
Twelve acre millfield 33 13 3 0
Millfield pasture 34 2 3 34
13 acre millfield 85 15 3 16
Little mill croft 86 3 2 12
Great Chapel field 91 15 3 4
Little Chapel field 92 7 3 10
Further meadow 365 3 2 12
129 1 37 35 18 0
SEYMOUR William Esqre Himself Robin Hood End Gt Shipley fd 224 16 3 22
Little do. 225 7 1 7
Smithy l led 312 12 1 24
Middle ley 313 17 1 34
Pightle 316 3 0 31
Grove field 317 3 3 16
Brickyard pasture 323 2 3 33
High field 323 7 1 11
Stoney land 326 6 3 0
Ellen acres? 327 7 0 12
Gravel pit fields 328 3 3 30
Gaitlodge pasture 329 3 3 23
Hop ground field 330 3 3 30
Upper quirts? 336 3 0 23
New land 339 14 3 0
Hither wood field 340 17 1 6
Further do. 341 13 0 3
Wood 342 4 2 22
164 2 33 61 5 6
SEYMOUR William Esqre Jas BARNARD ctge 220 0 0 17
SMITH Geo Hself Mill Farm Pasture 26 1 0 26
27 2 9
28 3 0 14
29 2 3 38
30 4 3 15
31 2 0 16
32 1 2 12
16 10 0 4 4 0
SMITH Ezekiel Hself Brook House Brook House 331
Alder field 332 9 1 16
Shackle field 333 7 2 10
Braxted field 334 7 0 24
24 1 15 7 2 9
STEVENS Ellis Anderson Esqre Phillip SHELLY pt Bacons field 344 4 1 20
pt Great Mores? 346 3 0 3
Little Moses 347 4 3 0
pt Bens? paasture 348 2 3 0
pt Stubbage field 360 11 0 13
25 3 28 6 19 9
STEVENS Ellis Anderson Esqre John RICHARDSON ctge 345 0 0 36
SHELLEY Thos Wm WESLEY ctge 283 0 1 16
TURNER? James Hself Windmill & yard 133 0 1 13
House or field 138 7 3 9
8 0 22 4 5 0
UNWIN Edwd Thos WIX ctge 235 0 0 20
WHITE Thomas Robert RURRIL? pt Wood field 2 3 0 25
pt Pit field 3 3 0 22
Bridge field 4 6 2 2
13 1 36 3 1 0
WOODHAM William Rack? Esqre Edward EAME? Little Tagley Pightle 115 0 1 2
Lower Pastre 117 4 0 0
New fd 118 1 2 10
upper fd 182 6 8 4
Broads 183 2 2 30
Boteford? 6 1 23
23 0 31 7 2 0
WOODHAM William Rack? Esqre Martin GATWARD? Great Tagley Gt Middle ley 95 9 1 7
Sheeps pightle 184 1 0 0
Dovehouse field 187 6 1 24
Wren pasture 188 1 2 24
Six acre wren 189 6 3 0
Little mill ley 191 3 3 22
Chaseway 0 0 14
Furrels (sic) 192 9 2 26
Eight acre wood field 193 8 0 36
Gt Wren 194 13 0 8
Gt bushey ley 195 3 3 33
Six acre woodfield 196 6 2 12
Little bushey ley 197 2 2 24
Potatoe garden 198 1 1 0
Home field 199 10 8 8
Home pasture 200 6 1 0
Homestead 201 1 1 10
Lower Cragge 202 4 1 34
Little Tagley field 210 17 2 21
Self sown field 211 13 0 18
Tagley wood 212 2 1 12
Lower long field 213 8 2 2
Upper ditt 214 10 2 18
Poplar field 215 9 3 27
Cow ley 216 13 0 38
170 0 29 73 19 0
Central Part of the Tithe Map of 1837 with the addition of some field names
Stambourne Church of England School 1861 to 1958 & The Village Hall
The school was built by private subscription in 185961 on land donated by the Quaker Fry family in the extreme SW corner of their estate by the Dyers End junction. A school house was contiguous with the original building. Further land was donated in 1911 & some enlargement made.
Some three generations of Frys occupied the Hall over this period. Though an Elisabeth Pease Fry was one of the donors this was not the Prison Reformeress, Elizabeth Gurney Fry , though they probably were related by marriage.
I have seen no records of the future development of the building though there were said to be some in the Bank in which the title deeds are kept. What follows is based on oral tradition in the village and only the church records have been verified.
The pupils originally paid four pence [£ s 4d] per week. This is equivalent to about one third of a days wages of a farm labourer and to £ 15 per term in today's money .
The known teachers are:
Mrs Emily Jenny Bowyer who married Albert Edwin in 1872 [see Bowyer annex]Both are 32 in 1881
Miss Sarah [Sally] Garnham for 25 y; she died aet 93 in 1937 (so was 65 in 1909) and is buried by the Lych Gate.
Mr & Mrs Tozer
Mrs Annie Drew who married Arthur Drew & died in the School House in 1986
A Mr Burleigh is mentioned by C H Spurgeon as a schoolteacher but he probably was not here.
On the closure of the School education of local children was continued in the much larger and newer building in Toppesfield. Our building was, after a few years, converted into The Village Hall. An attempt was made to get permission to put a purposedesigned building combining a Pavilion, on the Playing Field. This failed because the land was protected by a covenant made by the donor, the late Mrs Peat, which was maintained by the then owner. The trustees paid £ 475 [or £ 600] for the building of which £ 400 was donated by Mr Turner of Brook House. The conversion cost £ 300. Water had been installed in 1954
The Village Hall is now most actively used indeed on most days and is in my view excellently suited to its purpose. It has recently been greatly refurbished with new hardwood flooring & effective heating, though this is sadly garish. It provides a good epitaph for the school and sound preservation of this pleasant domestic Victorian redbrick building.
Annex 6: Stambourne Church of England School & the Frys 1861-1958
This is a transcript of notes made on 21 April 1994 in Barclays Bank in Haverhill after Derrick Johnson had arranged with Alan King (probably deputy manager) to show us the deeds. It includes some notes of my own & information from the DNB.
The seminal document is a parchment 27” x 20” which is dated on one side 25 June 1860 & on the other bears an indenture of 19 December 1911.
There is a number of other deeds and transfers in typescript relating mainly to the closure and conversion to Village Hall which will bear later study but would require a day’s work at home.
The original 1860 transfer is confusingly endorsed with a stamp of 1859 while the perceived date of the school’s opening is 1861. It is of the grant of a nearly square plot of land in the Western corner of the lands of the Hall adjoining what was then Digby’s Meadow. This is now identified as the waterworks field and is the property of J Shand of Essex Hall. The plot was probably woodland.
The transfer is from
Francis E Gibson
Elizabeth Pease (who subscribes herself Elizabeth P Fry)
And is to the church officers
John Forster (Rector here 1858-68)
William Ruffle &
Robert E Smith (his wardens)
with verbose references to the Bishop of the diocese.
In the text, which is faded and difficult to read but in a clear document manuscript, the names of several villagers are scattered:
Lewis Lewsey - Publican
William Marsh - yeoman
George Ruffle - Farmer
Joseph Choat Jarvis - shopkeeper
The central panel of the reverse (originally the front) is the title of the deed with the later date of 19 December 1911 added. This relates to an INDENTURE that is fitted into the spaces around the panel. It transfers an L-shaped enlargement of land belonging to the Hall from:
Lewis Fry (now Right Honourable but he is not in the DNB)
J H Brookes (Rector here 1896-1919; I don’t recall if his names were given)
Elizabeth Unwin &
John Joseph Since or Cince (his wardens)
It is witnessed by, inter alia,
Richard Fry - Chocolate maker of Bristol
Abrham (sic) Ashard - servant to Forster (sic)
A M - Butler of Bristol
The original Fry - a Joseph - seems to have been 1728-1787, who invented a type fount which he said was like Caxton’s and who also called himself a Cocoa Maker. Another Joseph Fry married Elizabeth Gurney in 1800 - he could have been a grandson - it seems the prison reformeress (1780-1845) was related to cocoa money, therefore Joseph Storrs Fry (1826-1913) was the major chocolate man and the philanthropist.
Clearly Joseph was the mainstream name but our Lewis Frys (probably 3 generations) are also clearly of the same ilk: as shown by their getting Richard, the self-styled chocolate maker of Bristol, all the way up here to witness the disposal of family land.
So an Elizabeth Fry did indeed live in Stambourne, but she was neé Pease, not Gurney and lived about 1830-90, not 1780 to 1845.
Annex 7: A Death from Diphtheria
This is a reply to an essay by a pupil now at Toppesfield School on the Stambourne pupil whose gravestone of 1899 still stands here
26 July 1989
Ridgewell (044 085) 316
Thank you for letting us see your project of Mary Ellen Ashard - we are very impressed by it.
In my first laboratory in 1945 we were even then still diagnosing a case every week or so but they stopped soon after. We had a method for distinguishing the mild (called mitis) from the severe gravis bacteria. Your excellent account of the disease leaves little doubt that the poor child had the misfortune to be infected with Corynebacterium diptheriae gravis and in the days before antisera probably would not have survived anyway.
I suppose your Ruth Ashard was one of my predecessors as Churchwarden even though she was living in Toppesfield. The Congregational minister was John Wesley Houchin.
The Ashards are a new family in Stambourne! Our records go back to 1559 and they don’t appear by 1811. Since then we have only looked at the marriage registers but from them can make up most of your family. I think George the grandfather must have been the immigrant for he was not married here.
George Ashard, a labourer =
Mary Bareham Thomas Your unknown girl James = Emma Bane 5 October 1877 (#193)
Born 1848 1855
Alice Mary Perhaps Edith Lucy Emily Sophia Mary Ellen
1879 1881 1882 1889 April 8
J T Bonner Bapt 25 May
(son of publican) Died 11 Aug 1899
22 July 1902
Much depends on inference but the only doubtful one is Edith Lucy whose father is not given. This is usually carelessness because if he is really not known the Rector seems to delight in saying so. The only Ashards in the congregational records are between 1865 and 1871 where there are seven - mostly Old Testament Christian names - none is James or George. I have still to do our Victorian birth and death records (yr photocopy is the first I’ve seen) but will watch for the missing persons when I do.
[They were later analysed and I did not find the names missing.]
The Playing Fields
These were donated by the owner of the Hall in 1957. Water is said to have been laid on in 1954 so probably they were used ad hoc before that time.
There are few team games now though for years the Cricket Team and a Football team combining with Toppesfield were active & successful. For a short period in the 1980s there was an Archery Club which met on Sundays in conformity with the Act of King Henry VIII which has never been repealed. A children’s playing area is well stocked & is maintained to the highest safety standards.
Recently a fine Car Park has been surfaced with a gateway to the Churchyard for use during services. Sadly it has been found necessary to lock & bar it at other times despite its provenance for the use the villagers.
A Pavilion was built in Essex boarding to the West of the Playing Field in 1978 for £ 1500. The Parish Council had wished to build a Village Hall here to serve this purpose too. v.s.
Other Lay Buildings
Church Farm House
is opposite the church in the corner of Rectory Lane & Church Road. Until quite recently it had several outbuildings but has long since lost it lands which were some 128 acres in 1837 farmed by Wm Ruffle. The enormous barn immediately facing the church was probably part of its messuage; this was converted to a private dwelling in 1995 following the failure of numerous attempts to find a commercial function for it.
It is a pleasant building of Georgian appearance but the timbers inside, particularly in the dairy, show it to be much older.
The known owners are:
1837 Wm Ruffle
1877 Wm John & Mary Ruffle
1878 Wm Freebone Burleigh [there is a note of his being connected with schooling & Mr Spurgeon]
1879 Arthur Garratt [he is not related the later churchwarden]
An Unwin probably held it at about this time
1965c.75 Timothy & Widget Finn recovered it from a ruinous state
19761992 Christopher & Margaret Jones [now both ordained in the Methodist Church]
1993 till the present Richard & Susan Day
is a solid genuinely Georgian yellow Brick building at the bifurcation of the Ridgewell & Cornish Hall End roads. It is one of the few remaining working farms in Stambourne and is probably much the same size as the 94 acres Wm Gibbens farmed in 1837.
In about 1990 a massive barn & drying plant was built, ostensibly for its own use, but which has clearly been in use to store grain carted in from far away; it is effectively part of the grain mountain.
It was owned by the Unwins in the last century and is now worked by the Argent family who bought it in about 1965.
Post Mill [House]
is nearby and is now a livery stable with little land. It appears to be quite an old building which has a very recent addition. It is of importance since some of its deeds survived until their recent export to America and which tell us much of the history of that area. With them is the record of the grant of land in 1710 HHII on which he build his chapel. They are listed in Annex 9; I have prepared copies and the translations I have made of the deeds are in my library.
A mill of unknown type stood between these two properties; there stands here now a mainly Victorian partlythatched house named Mill House. The western end of it is clearly very old.
There was also a fine Post Mill hereabouts within this century; it was destroyed in 1909. The probable site of it is on the W side of Mill road. This is now occupied by Castle Bungalow, built c1980 by Mr Argent. He presently owns Hill Farm, which is occupied by his son Ronald. There are some pleasant brick byres surrounding the site, probably built from Stambourne Bricks.
It is not clear how any of these sites relates to the present private dwelling called Post Mill or to the site of the mill itself.
Annex 8: List of the Deeds of the Post Mill
A list of photocopies of DEEDS said to relate to Post Mill with an attempt to set a chronology. They were lent me by Derrick Johnson in November 1989 and the originals will be taken to America by Betty Nichols, the former occupant.
1710 22 September. A roll 60 x 20 cm in Latin in beautiful italic gothic script; it is marked “Examined by RA: Cole” but is not signed by the litigants. What is probably a free translation on to foolscap of the same date seems to be the legal document with actual signatures; it transfers 2 acres across from John Levitt to (presumably the second) Henry Havers.
1735 28 August. A folded manuscript 58 x 28 cm in clear modern English in a cursive script which is a copy of the Court roll made by Ra: Cole and containing an extract of the Will of Henry Havers II who calls himself ‘Minister of the Gospel and so forth’. It transfers The Shop from Henry Havers II to Henry Havers III who refers to HH II as his uncle, along with two acres.
1747 There is no document of this, the date of the death of HH III and cover the 31 years up to 1778, q.v. is lacking.
1778 9 July is a printed form completed in irregular copperplate transferring 2 acres from Catherine Clapton to Daniel Wade for £160 - it says she is bound but the sum seems too large to relate to an apprenticeship.
1785 31 January. A single A3 sheet in modern copperplate transfers a messuage from Daniel Wade to Edward Piper of Toppesfield.
I see no connection between Piper and Breans.
1792 Breans to Coles quoted q.v.
1799 25 April. James Cole to John Davey with a suffix of Davey’s surrender to his will 38 x 26 cm; modern copperplate.
1831 31 October. Transfer by the lord from John Davey to Harriet Ralling (who may well be his natural child) following presentation of J D’s will. Modern copperplate 38 x 26 cm.
1832 16 April. The first of the modern sized double foolscap (copied on to A4 30 x 21 cm) Harriet Ralling transfers to Robt Bretnall for £160.
I see no connection between Robt Bretnall of Wither and Oldham and Fitch.
1834 quoted q.v. Oldham and Fitch to Daniel Unwin and Seth Gibbons (who may be the father of William).
1857 5 May quoted q.v. William Gibbons to Daniel Unwin.
1884 Daniel Unwin dies intestate; D Jarvis Unwin is natural heir.
1885 25 September (which quotes the three above entries) 2 legal outlined sheets 42 x 29 cm of a transfer out of a sense of fairness from Daniel Jarvis Unwin to his (presumably younger) brother George Jarvis Unwin of a Mill and two acres.
The identity of the plots is vague - both Henry Havers clearly occupied The Shop on 2 acres; this seems to have fallen down and been replaced by a Mill and there are references to the land abutting the Chapel - but at this stage I am far from clear just where it was and whether all the deeds relate to the same plot.
JBE 18 November 1989
Discussion of the evidence
1710 It seems probable that the present site of Castle Bungalow was the place on which was situate The Shop given as the address of HHII in the deed of transfer of 2 acres from John Levitt.
1834 The Post Mill was included in the sale by the Unwins of Hill Farm
1866 It was held sequentially by Daniel Unwin
1870 Geo Unwin also 1874
1878 Daniel Unwin junior also 1882
1906 Mrs E Unwin
1908 Daniel Herbert Unwin. He spent a lot of money on repairs;
latterly it used a petrol engine & was operated by a Mr Cranfield.
1909 3rd December. "Stambourne: Mill wrecked" ".....dislocated beyond repair "
1910 May; the ruins were auctioned off.
1963 The brick byres were on the site & remained unused save as a coach house for years
1980 Mr Argent builds Castle Bungalow.
Chestnut Horse Farm
[The Chestnuts] is another building of uncertain age in the area now called Mill Road.
@ the Toppesfield turning is more than a mile away & was always small. Geo Smith farmed 16 acres in 1837. The house was recovered from a ruin in about 1970 and now has just a small garden. There was a mill of unknown type here between it and The Elms. Robert & Edward Jarvis were here in 18041815
Thus four mills on differing sites are recorded in the XIXc. Another is mentioned in the Feet of Fines in 1540 as being in Ridgewell and Stambourne. This is probably one of the many references to Ridgewell Norton and suggests there was a fifth windmill servicing Slough, Green, Revells & both the Nortons farms in what I am calling the fourth area.
now the White House was a second public House in 1965 when it closed. It is a large imposing but undistinguished building, probably of the XVIIIc. That it was once prosperous is evidenced by a surviving photograph of perhaps fifty men preparing for a shoot on its forecourt.
The known Publicans were:
1760 may have been Mr Key; the measures inspector does not specify which house in his report.
18023 Isaac Fitch
1822 Elisabeth Fitch
1823 John Davey
1836 William & Jane Wallman [from Rector]
1845 & '48 Thos Shelley [Whites Directory]
1876 & 78 John Wright marries Esther Jarvis; still there 1878
1880 E Wiffen m Mary Ann
1881 Edward, aet 27 y and Mary Ann, aet 27 y Wiffen were still landlords
1902 J T Bonner
1926 Edward Ashwin
1933 Harry Bright; also 1938
1960s Mr & Muriel Crow, were landlords:
1965 She was Treasurer of the PCC and served us from the last barrel on her last day; her husband had already died.
1995 Muriel was very ill herself and not like to last long.
an Elizabethan house in Dyers End , also functioned as a third hostlery. "Good Beer Sold Here. It now has little of the 23 acres owned by Wm Woodham in 1837 which were farmed by Edward Eame
a much larger and older house on the opposite of the road now probably has acquired all the lands hereabouts, most of which belonged originally to the Grenvilles
Annex 9: A Description of the Five Mills
Mill of unknown type. Stood away from roads in the east of the parish beyond Dyers End and south of the Yeldham road, probably at about 250 yards north north east of Elms Farm (727381) and mile south east of Stambourne church. Approx. TL 727383.
Mill of unknown type. Stood a little west of Hill Farm at the junction of the Ridgewell road. TL 716393.
Mill of unknown type. On the north side of the Yeldham road 450 yards east of the Finchingfield road. TL 727388.
Post mill. Stood at Chestnut Horse Farm on the south side of the Bumpstead road, here named Mill Road, 350 yards west of Wesley End Road, the turning to Ridgewell (as site 2 above). TL 714391 ( 227).
IN REFERENCE to the first three sites, there is little apart from map symbols to put on record. At (1) a mill is placed by Warburton, Bland and Smyth (c 1724). An abstract of title deeds relating to Greenfields or Greenvills Farm (726387) cites for 1729 the farm and the ‘Mill House … with the Mill and Hill it stood on as it was then inclosed with a Mote’. Robert Chote (sic) being in occupation
A deed of 1771 gave Edward Choate (sic) in occupation but without reference to a mill. The tithe map (1837-8)
names Little Mill Croft and Mill Field at site (1), corresponding with fields named in the above mentioned abstract in a conveyance of 1821.
Chapman and André (1777) record a windmill symbol only at site (2) and the drawings (1799-1800) for the first O.S. 1 in. map place a symbol at (3) which is not noted on other maps examined. A dwelling west of Stump’s Cross at 731387 was named Mill Farm on the first and second O.S. 6 in. maps and was presumably connected with mill (3). The Jarvis family were evidently here: Edward in 1804, advertising for a pair of millstones of large diameter, and Robert, listed as potential juror in 1815
. Greenwood (1825) has no mills in Stambourne. Mill (4) is seen on the revised first O.S. 1 in. (rev’d 1836-7). The Hill Farm mill (2) may have been included in the former area of Ridgewell parish.
The last mill (4) is seen in two post-1900 photographs as devoid of roundhouse and standing on tall brick piers. It is of note that the mill was held with Hill Farm in 1834 when in the occupation of Messrs Unwin, and was then for sale by auction
. It had two pairs of French stones, which a note recorded in 1936 described as in the breast
. Daniel Unwin held the mill in 1834 and also in 1866. There followed George Unwin (1870, 74) and Daniel Unwin junior (1878, 82), and so to Mrs E Unwin (1906) and Daniel Herbert Unwin (1908). The last were prepared to lavish money on repairs at this comparatively late date but the mill was dislocated beyond
redemption on Friday 3 December 1909. A press report stated
Stambourne, Mill Wrecked. During the storm which raged at the end of last week, the Stambourne windmill, one of the few that still exist in motion, which is in the occupation of Mrs Unwin, was practically wrecked. The mill which stands on an eminence, had been in constant work. It was just undergoing repair, and the ladders and scaffolding were in position. The terrific force of the wind early on Friday morning caused the mill to be wrenched over on to one side, and rendered useless for further business operations. Nobody appears to have heard the crash. The machinery was put out of gear, the driving wheel being irreparably damaged. We understand that the amount of damage done was considerable.
Annex 10: An Old Photograph of the Post Mill
About a month later, the same paper announced the demolition of the mill ‘injured during the recent gale’ and in May 1910, a sale by auction on the premises of mill parts was advertised. These included two pairs of stones, sails, gear wheels, plummer blocks and so forth.
As revealed by photographs, the white painted mill body was plainly built, without porch or projections at the rear, and was winded by tail pole with a simple yoke attached. A sack slide descended the rear ladder. There were four spring sails, single-shuttered and turning anti-clockwise, and a wheeled staging was pushed round the mill for shutter adjustment. The brick piers rose to above head height and the base timbers bore evidence of the depredations of the weather, having reinforcement at the lower joints.
Windmill etc., 1540, in Ridgewell and Stambourne (Feet of Fines, Essex. Vol IV p. 235)
was leaning at a ramshackle angle at the Dyers End corner in 1963. The Elizabethan chimney was @ some 15° to the vertical; it was shortly pulled down. It is described in the RCHM and was of considerable Antiquity.
opposite was completely stripped in about 1970 and a series of photographs of the skeleton exist. It was restored by Col Brenneman of the US Army and Norma who occupied it until 1995. They were staunch supporters of the Church and Mrs Brenneman has left a trust in her will for its future maintenance which will become operative on her death.
in Cornish Hall End now owns most of the land in that fourth part of the village. Its attached Revels Cottages were until recently called Stambourne Green Cottages.
with its small but fine old house that features in the deeds of Moyns Park in 1550 and Green Farm are both still working small agricultural units.
Stambourne Receiving Office
was established in 1875on the site now occupied by Mr Pyman's transport garages. DRHJ has a photograph of a postman wearing a shako hat. There has been a subpost office in roughly the same area of the village ever since, some times, but not now, associated with a shop. The first mention of any shop was in 1710 when HHII lived there; the last functional general store was operated by Mrs Jennifer Sewrey and closed in c.1984.
the whereabouts of which I do not know, was subject to flooding.
was a ruin in the dip by Mill Farm in 1963. It worked during the last war and was pulled down about 1970; it was from here that the pump presently in Wesley End was derived.
on the Finchingfield Border was originally five cottages; it is noted on the tithe map and was the home of the child who died of diphtheria.
is a fine large thatched house in the Finchingfield Road; it has a copy of an original Elizabethan deed. Next to it is its Cottage of similar age
Parish Council from 1894 onwards
The local Government Act of that year set up the Councils. The note reproduced as Annex 10 was typed on an early machine. It is of unknown provenance. It was probably written around 1970 and altered after 1972. It lists the original members who were:
Robert Henry Bedford
John Joseph Smee
Daniel Unwin was elected District Councillor.
I have found no complete record of the Lay Parish Clerks. Those known to me are:
Elsie Hillier September 1977 March 1987
Jill M Sager March 1987
Jane Pickess March 19923
Fiona Bayley July 1993 to present time
Annex 11: A Photograph of cottages at Dyers End
Annex 12: Old typescript on Parish Council
The typescript of which this is a copy , execrably done on an old machine, was among the Church Council papers. guess it was done by Leonard Howard about 1970 but I may be maligning him: for it does read as if it were the effort of a Parish Council officer. It was certainly incompetently typed and grammatically hilarious. Most of the obvious idiocies have been corrected but spelling and punctuation left largely untouched. It begins:
Local administration can be traced back for many centuries to the days when the unit was the manor , the residents being the lord and his family, his retainers and his tenants, free & unfree. The duties and services that bound them together were regulated by assemblies, the Lord being obliged to attend them regularly & the tenants being bound to attend. At these assemblies various officers were elected annually the Pinder who impounded stray beasts & put them in the pound,the Hayward whose duty it was to ensure that the fences were kept in order, and so on. Later as the power of the lords declined and that of the church increased the in habitants began to meet under the parson for the social and administative purposes of their religious life. Then with the dissolution of the monasteries and the growth of the population and communications began a network of reforms and Acts of Parliament, until amid such controverys the local Givernment Act 1894 was passed, among its provisions being the setting up of Parish Meetings & Parish Councils.
So it was that the Overseers, John Willett & Joseph Unwin called a Parish Meeting on the 4th of December 1894 at the school to elect five Parish Councillors. for the Parish of Stambourne/, Our first Parish Council consisted of Robert Henry Bedford, John Joseph Smee, John Thomas Bonner, James Metson & Joseph Fitch. with Daniel Unwin being elected District Councillor. Election was by a show of hands after the ballot papers had been scrutinised by the chairman of the appropriate [crossed out] annual Parish meeting. From 1947 onwards election of Parish Councillllors has be3en by secret ballot, except when, as often happened, only sufficient nominations were received to form a council. The powers of the Council were limited and hemmed about by restrictions and formalities, but Among the things the P.C. can do are to make bylaws in cetain respects, provide allotments, community centres, entertainments, car parks, and various other amenities; it can deal with ponds and offensive ditches, maintain war memorials, plant trees, but above all it can, and does, make the views of the Parish known to those in higher authority and call their attention to items, such as a polluted water supply, traffic hazards , essential highway repairs etc. which are of concern to the village and the duty of the higher authority to deal with. Apart from their work on the Parish Council, your councillors all undertake other duties. Our Chairman, Mr D.R.H.Johnson, of course, represents Stambourne and three other villages on the Braintree District Council and is very active in brionging our needs to the notice of those concerned. Mr Crago is Vice Chairman, Mr Boughtwood is our representative on the Halstead Area Road User panel, concerned with road safety, Mr Drysdale is a trustee of the Cole & Unknown Donor Charities, Mrs Peat & Mr Wesley represent the Council on the Essex Assn of Local Councils, & Mr Sager is the Council's nominee as a Trustee on the Village Hall Management Ctee. & but [sic] with the reorganisation of Local Govt in 1972 the position of the local council was much improved with consequent benefit to the parish.
A Newsletter was instituted in about 1970. It became progressively more ambitious and informative and Number 100 was published in 1978; it is reproduced as annex no 11.
Annex 13: A facsimile of Newsletter 100
A List of Old Place Names
Proper Name Source Interpretation if known
Alkeborough Morant A family from Boyton End who married and brought land to the Mackwilliams; also Akeberwe
Botsford Hopkins unknown
Bradecroft S429a In Gt Yeldham
Bradefeld In Toppesfield; properties of Pevers
Bushey later Busky 1881 census This was on the lands of Revells Farm in the SW corner. Graham Sewrey leased shootingrights here from Ian Bentall.
Bustocke Terrier 1611 Unknown; ? also Burlestoc and Busco; SC of 1198
in Redeswell Q50 12 Jan 1569/70 [Bookham = a village by the Beeches]
Collynes Wood Reaney ? Collins Farm in Mill Road belonged to the Chapel
Croft aka Oswaldcroft The croft belonging to Oswald
Croft, The The Green opposite Slough Farm. Probably a spur of land Possibly a helmet, a beggar or scoundrel Perhaps a hoof
Elsdon 1837 Tithe map Western part of Church Farm
Fayerdonfeld Q42 14 Apr 1496 Faith field
Gunce's Meadow 1611 & 1800 Is in Toppesfield, now: Rectory owned a swathe of it. Later it was owned by a Mrs Chiswell, doubtless the widow of 'A Gentleman '
Harries Farm Hopkins unknown
Little Norton A post card A corner by the same farms
Messing's Farm Hopkins Mainly in Toppesfield
New Barne 1881 census 6"OS Midway along the path from Levitts to The Green
Oxley's lost Part of Grenvilles
as Pitiful wood in 1881 census Just over the Ridgewell border by a bridle path leading to Weybridge; part of Essex Hall Farm which belongs to Mr James Shand who now owns nearly all the lands once part of Stambourne Hall
Rectory Lane 1611 on A major dispute until at least 1837
Regis Pasture 1837 map Part of Stamborne Green
Rockalls oral A ruin by a pond on Bentley's land
Rowley lost Part owner of Leveritts
Sanborne Grove Q48 20 Jan 1524/5 Sandy as opposed to stony stream; 33/4d p.a.
& Little & Gate 1611 & 1837 The large area to the NW of Rectory Lane.
Stanbornes Q49 30 Apr 1563 A rare variant of our village's name.
Tedmoore Terrier 1611 Neither JH nor I can find it.
Thorald's Grove SC 326; < 1198 AD unknown
Tufte or Tuftefeld Q4 1495 A close of 5 acres @ The Green; soft sandy stones. The same root as tophi.